Here is a recipe that I make some variation on with great regularity. It varies according to what I have on hand, but with some basics stocked (pasta, garlic, oil, butter, veggies), I can make it just about any time, and it cooks up really fast. This recipe is somewhat vague because there's a lot of "winging it" involved :)
The basics are this. Start some water boiling. Saute up a liberal amount of fresh garlic with some butter and olive oil. Add some pine nuts if you have them. Add chopped up vegetables, in this case broccoli, but you can use all sorts of things, squash, mushrooms, etc. Let that cook for a little while, and while this is going on, add some angel hair pasta to the boiling water. It only has to cook for a few minutes, so watch it closely. Add chopped tomatoes to the other vegetables (I always add the tomatoes later so they don't overcook.) Then crack some green or black peppercorns with the flat of your knife and add them in. Add some cheese if you have it. Obviously parmesan works great, but here I used Fontanella. Stealing a trick from this recipe, add a ladle or two of the pasta water, and stir it up. Drain the pasta and add the veggies. That's it!